The STANDS4 Network ... USSR. On April 12, 1961, the first cosmonaut, Yuri Gagarin, was sent to the space. [219], Christianity and Islam had the highest number of adherents among the religious citizens. [178] The underdeveloped road network led to a growing demand for public transport.[179]. Bergman, Jay. Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania (SSRs) were also admitted into the union which was not recognized by most of the international community and was considered an illegal occupation. In the late 1980s, the Soviet Union managed to build the Mir orbital station. The analysis of the succession of states for the 15 post-Soviet states is complex. In response, Britain and France declared war on Germany, marking the beginning of World War II. Советских Социалистических Республик (Sojúz Sovétskix Socialistíčeskix Respúblik, “The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics”). His policy of glasnost freed public access to information after decades of heavy government censorship. The German Army suffered 80% of its military deaths in the Eastern Front. The Comintern was the weapon of choice. During his rule, Stalin always made the final policy decisions. UDSSR is listed in the World's largest and most authoritative dictionary database of abbreviations and acronyms UDSSR - What does UDSSR stand for? [155] Compared to countries with similar per-capita GDP in 1928, the Soviet Union experienced significant growth. Another shuttle, Ptichka, eventually ended up under construction, as the shuttle project was canceled in 1991. This is generally recognized as marking the official, final dissolution of the Soviet Union as a functioning state, and the end of the Cold War. You might also like some similar terms related to USSR to know more about it. [204], The Soviet Union was an ethnically diverse country, with more than 100 distinct ethnic groups. According to a 1990 estimate, the majority were Russians (50.78%), followed by Ukrainians (15.45%) and Uzbeks (5.84%). Its territory included much of Eastern Europe, parts of Northern Europe, and all of Northern and Central Asia. The signing of the treaty, however, was interrupted by the August Coup—an attempted coup d'état by hardline members of the government and the KGB who sought to reverse Gorbachev's reforms and reassert the central government's control over the republics. Донецк, 2010, 192 с. А. П. Чуприков, Е. А. Волков. While in Sicily the forces of Great Britain and the United States are being opposed by 2 German divisions, the Russian front is receiving attention of approximately 200 German divisions. [143] The war caused extensive devastation of the Soviet economy and infrastructure, which required massive reconstruction. The Moscow Games might well have been called the Chemists' Games". [20] This event would later be officially known in Soviet bibliographies as the Great October Socialist Revolution. In March, the Soviets ended involvement in the war and signed the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk. Intellectuals were based in the Moscow State Institute of International Relations. Soviet demographers and health specialists remained silent about the mortality increases until the late-1980s, when the publication of mortality data resumed, and researchers could delve into the real causes. While some leftists regard the USSR as an example of state capitalism or that it was an oligarchical state, other leftists admire Vladimir Lenin and the Russian Revolution. [240], Many Russians and other former Soviet citizens have nostalgia for the USSR, pointing towards most infrastructure being built during Soviet times, increased job security, increased literacy rate, increased caloric intake and supposed ethnic pluralism enacted in the Soviet Union as well as political stability. "Union of Soviet Socialist Republics" can be abbreviated as U.S.S.R. Q: A: What is the meaning of U.S.S.R abbreviation? It became the duty of the Russian Bolsheviks to protect what they had in Russia, and avoid military confrontations that might destroy their bridgehead. This information should not be considered complete, up to date, and is not intended to be used in place of a visit, consultation, or advice of a legal, medical, or any other professional. According to declassified Soviet archives, the NKVD arrested more than one and a half million people in 1937 and 1938, of whom 681,692 were shot. The prevailing mood of the Soviet leadership at the time of Brezhnev's death in 1982 was one of aversion to change. 1 USSR stands for United States Socialist Republic (also Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and 45 more) What is the abbreviation for United States Socialist Republic? [232] The number of working mosques also declined, falling from 1,500 to 500 within a decade. The economic centralization of the late 1920s and 1930s led to the development of infrastructure on a massive scale, most notably the establishment of Aeroflot, an aviation enterprise. Unio de Sovetaj Socialismaj Respublikoj. Khrushchev's reforms in agriculture and administration, however, were generally unproductive. uncorrected version. Finally, in 1933, the United States officially recognized the USSR, a decision backed by the public opinion and especially by US business interests that expected an opening of a new profitable market. In the post-war period, the Soviet Army was directly involved in several military operations abroad. That night, the Soviet flag was lowered for the last time, and the Russian tricolor was raised in its place. ", "In War II Russia occupies a dominant position and is the decisive factor looking toward the defeat of the Axis in Europe. The Soviet Union national ice hockey team won nearly every world championship and Olympic tournament between 1954 and 1991 and never failed to medal in any International Ice Hockey Federation (IIHF) tournament in which they competed. What does ussr stand for. During the first five-year plan in 1928, Stalin proceeded to industrialize the country at all costs. Throughout the 1930s, social mobility rose sharply, which has been attributed to reforms in education. Karelia was split off from Russia as a Union Republic in March 1940 and was reabsorbed in 1956. All left-handed children were forced to write with their right hand in the Soviet school system. [218], As the most widely spoken of the Soviet Union's many languages, Russian de facto functioned as an official language, as the "language of interethnic communication" (Russian: язык межнационального общения), but only assumed the de jure status as the official national language in 1990. Citizens may teach and may be taught religion privately. The Soviet Union placed great emphasis on science and technology within its economy,[166] however, the most remarkable Soviet successes in technology, such as producing the world's first space satellite, typically were the responsibility of the military. In the second half of the 1980s, Gorbachev's policies of perestroika and glasnost significantly expanded freedom of expression throughout the country in the media and the press.[252]. [186] The rises in both adult and infant mortality were not explained or defended by Soviet officials, and the Soviet government stopped publishing all mortality statistics for ten years. A parliament—the State Duma—was established in 1906 after the Russian Revolution of 1905, but Tsar Nicholas II resisted attempts to move from absolute to a constitutional monarchy. [234] A poll conducted by Soviet authorities in 1982 recorded 20% of the Soviet population as "active religious believers. Following Stalin's death in 1953, a period known as de-Stalinization and the Khrushchev Thaw occurred under the leadership of Nikita Khrushchev. [28] The stated purpose was to prevent the return of capitalist exploitation, and that the principles of democratic centralism would be the most effective in representing the people's will in a practical manner. Yuri Andropov was 68 years old and Konstantin Chernenko 72 when they assumed power; both died in less than two years. Brezhnev presided throughout détente with the West that resulted in treaties on armament control (SALT I, SALT II, Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty) while at the same time building up Soviet military might. The USSR produced many significant social and technological achievements and innovations of the 20th century, including the world's first ministry of health, first human-made satellite, the first humans in space and the first probe to land on another planet, Venus. [57] The Soviet Army initially remained under overall CIS command but was soon absorbed into the different military forces of the newly independent states. In 1924, during the national delimitation in Central Asia, Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan were formed from parts of Russia's Turkestan ASSR and two Soviet dependencies, the Khorezm and Bukharan SSRs. Almost a year after Britain and France had concluded the Munich Agreement with Germany, the Soviet Union made agreements with Germany as well, both militarily and economically during extensive talks. Because of widespread familiarity with the Cyrillic abbreviation, Latin alphabet users in particular almost always use the orthographically-similar Latin letters C and P (as opposed to the transliteral Latin letters S and R) when rendering the USSR's native abbreviation. Under the command economy, consumers had almost no influence on production, and the changing demands of a population with growing incomes could not be satisfied by supplies at rigidly fixed prices. The territory overtaken by the Red Army became satellite states of the Eastern Bloc. Following the ousting of Khrushchev, another period of collective leadership ensued, consisting of Leonid Brezhnev as General Secretary, Alexei Kosygin as Premier and Nikolai Podgorny as Chairman of the Presidium, lasting until Brezhnev established himself in the early 1970s as the preeminent Soviet leader. [254], A 1989 report by a committee of the Australian Senate claimed that "there is hardly a medal winner at the Moscow Games, certainly not a gold medal winner...who is not on one sort of drug or another: usually several kinds. [145] At its peak in 1988, it was the largest producer and second-largest exporter of crude oil, surpassed only by Saudi Arabia.[165]. On 3 April 1922, Stalin was named the General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. It was also known in the early 1990s that the USSR had transported radioactive material to the Barents Sea and Kara Sea, which was later confirmed by the Russian parliament. For their launch into space, there is today an unused superpower rocket, Energia, which is the most powerful in the world. The country had the world's second-largest economy and the largest standing military in the world. This did not last, however, and Nikita Khrushchev eventually won the ensuing power struggle by the mid-1950s. [79][80] In the following decades, only five or six of the post-communist states are on a path to joining the wealthy capitalist West while most are falling behind, some to such an extent that it will take over fifty years to catch up to where they were before the fall of the Soviet Bloc. United Soldiers of Soldat Realistic (gaming clan) showing only Slang/Internet Slang definitions ( show all 6 definitions) Note: We have 11 other definitions for USSR in our Acronym Attic. In the 1970s, more specific proposals for the design of the space shuttle began to emerge, but shortcomings, especially in the electronics industry (rapid overheating of electronics), postponed the program until the end of the 1980s. U.S.S.R stands for United Socialist Soviet Republics. In general, the birth rates of the southern republics in Transcaucasia and Central Asia were considerably higher than those in the northern parts of the Soviet Union, and in some cases even increased in the post–World War II period, a phenomenon partly attributed to slower rates of urbanistion and traditionally earlier marriages in the southern republics. USSR stands for Union of the Soviet Socialist Republics, as it is the ‘mother’ communist nation. [10][11][12] The USSR was recognized as one of the five nuclear weapons states. [222] In practice, the Soviet system subscribed to a narrow interpretation of this right, and in fact utilized a range of official measures to discourage religion and curb the activities of religious groups. [255], A member of the IOC Medical Commission, Manfred Donike, privately ran additional tests with a new technique for identifying abnormal levels of testosterone by measuring its ratio to epitestosterone in urine. Its five climate zones were tundra, taiga, steppes, desert, and mountains. Soviet Russia had to resolve similar conflicts with the newly established republics of Estonia, Finland, Latvia, and Lithuania. In 1929, Tajikistan was split off from the Uzbekistan SSR. By their calculation, per capita income in 1989 should have been twice higher than it was, considering the amount of investment, education and population. The Soviet authorities had an almost unwavering belief that man could transcend nature. The Soviet Union also participated in the war in Afghanistan between 1979 and 1989. Nominally a union of multiple national Soviet republics,[h] it was a one-party state (until 1990) governed by the Communist Party, with Moscow as its capital in its largest republic, the Russian SFSR. [141][148] For most of the period after World War II until its collapse, Soviet GDP (PPP) was the second-largest in the world, and third during the second half of the 1980s,[154] although on a per-capita basis, it was behind that of First World countries. Around the industrial cities of Monchegorsk and Norilsk, where nickel, for example, is mined, all forests have been destroyed by contamination, while the northern and other parts of Russia have been affected by emissions. Many anti-Stalinist leftists such as anarchists are extremely critical of Soviet authoritarianism and repression. Because Russia has a different alphabet (called the Cyrillic alphabet) USSR is spelled CCCP in Cyrillc. In late November, unable to coerce the Republic of Finland by diplomatic means into moving its border 25 kilometres (16 mi) back from Leningrad, Stalin ordered the invasion of Finland. During the country's early period, it was assumed that Communist revolutions would break out soon in every major industrial country, and it was the Soviet responsibility to assist them. At the same time, workers' councils, known in Russian as "Soviets", sprang up across the country. It is written in Cyrillic alphabets. [167] By 1989, Soviet scientists were among the world's best-trained specialists in several areas, such as energy physics, selected areas of medicine, mathematics, welding and military technologies. The tsarist autocracy was replaced by the Russian Provisional Government, which intended to conduct elections to the Russian Constituent Assembly and to continue fighting on the side of the Entente in World War I. The first shuttle, the Buran, flew in 1988, but without a human crew. Anarchist organizations and unions were also banned during the Spanish Civil War under the Republican government by orders from the Soviet government. In June 1941 the Germans invaded, opening the largest and bloodiest theater of war in history. While there was a brief improvement after his death, it lapsed into stagnation. Mironov, Boris N. "The Development of Literacy in Russia and the USSR from the Tenth to the Twentieth Centuries". By 1940, as many as 90% of the churches, synagogues, and mosques that had been operating in 1917 were closed.[224]. In contrast, the USSR was offensively and defensively maneuvering in the acquisition and utilization of the worldwide technology, to increase the competitive advantage that they acquired from the technology while preventing the US from acquiring a competitive advantage. Stalin died on 5 March 1953. Dr. Sergei Portugalov of the Institute for Physical Culture prepared the communication, directed to the Soviet Union's head of track and field. SSSR - What does SSSR stand for? Radioactive doses have scattered relatively far. [145] After the creation of the Eastern Bloc, external trade rose rapidly. This statistic in itself was seen by some that the socialist system was superior to the capitalist system. [159] David Wilson, a historian, believed that the gas industry would account for 40% of Soviet fuel production by the end of the century. During the later days of the USSR, countries with the same multilingual situation implemented similar policies. Whilst some leftists such as anarchists and other libertarian socialists, agree it did not give the workers control over the means of production and was a centralized oligarchy, others have more positive opinions as to the Bolshevik policies and Vladimir Lenin. Gradually, other modules were added to it, including American ones. The war drained economic resources and was matched by an escalation of American military aid to Mujahideen fighters. Union of … What does USSR stand for?-- Explore the various meanings for the USSR acronym on the website. The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (also known as the USSR or the Soviet Union) consisted of Russia and 14 surrounding countries. [117] State and party structures of the constituent republics largely emulated the structure of the central institutions, although the Russian SFSR, unlike the other constituent republics, for most of its history had no republican branch of the CPSU, being ruled directly by the union-wide party until 1990. In the late 1950s, a confrontation with China regarding the Soviet rapprochement with the West, and what Mao Zedong perceived as Khrushchev's revisionism, led to the Sino–Soviet split. During the first decade following the revolution, there was relative freedom and artists experimented with several different styles to find a distinctive Soviet style of art. Credit was discouraged, but widespread. Later renamed the Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic (1918) and the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (1936). [205], All citizens of the USSR had their own ethnic affiliation. 1920–1925  Kirghiz2 What does USSR stand for? The consolidation into a one-party state took place during the first three and a half years after the revolution, which included the period of, Mark Kramer, "The Soviet Bloc and the Cold War in Europe," in. Despite the foundation of the Soviet state as a federative entity of many constituent republics, each with its own political and administrative entities, the term "Soviet Russia" – strictly applicable only to the Russian Federative Socialist Republic – was often applied to the entire country by non-Soviet writers and politicians. [142] As a result, the USSR was transformed from a largely agrarian economy into a great industrial power, leading the way for its emergence as a superpower after World War II. [164] In the 1970s and 1980s, the USSR heavily relied on fossil fuel exports to earn hard currency. Another major accident is the Kyshtym disaster. The institutions at lower levels were overseen and at times supplanted by primary party organizations. However, the influence of the world economy on the USSR was limited by fixed domestic prices and a state monopoly on foreign trade. Nominally a union of multiple national Soviet republics, it was a one-party state (until 1990) governed by the Communist Party, with Moscow as its capital in its largest republic, the Russian SFSR.Other major urban centers were … As a result, the country underwent a period of rapid industrialization and forced collectivization, which led to significant economic growth, but also led to a man-made famine in 1932–1933 and expanded the Gulag labour camp system founded back in 1918. The domination was so absolute that for most of its existence, the country was commonly (but incorrectly) referred to as "Russia". 1936–1944  Checheno-Ingush USSR. Critics also point towards its failure to implement any substantial worker cooperatives or implementing worker liberation as well as corruption and the Soviet authoritarian nature. Before Leonid Brezhnev became General Secretary, the Soviet healthcare system was held in high esteem by many foreign specialists. Anatoly Lunacharsky became the first People's Commissar for Education of Soviet Russia. ", Scott and Scott, The Armed Forces of the Soviet Union, Westview Press, 1979, p.13, harvnb error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFWilson1983 (, Rebecca Balmas Neary, "Mothering Socialist Society: The Wife-Activists' Movement and the Soviet Culture of Daily Life, 1934–1941,". It was a single-party Marxist-Leninist communist state. [55] On 7 April 1990, a law was passed allowing a republic to secede if more than two-thirds of its residents voted for it in a referendum. It failed, with Russian President Boris Yeltsin playing a high-profile role in facing down the coup, resulting in the banning of the Communist Party. There were many minority languages which never received their own writing system; therefore, their speakers were forced to have a second language. Historian Matthew White wrote that it was an open secret that the country's federal structure was "window dressing" for Russian dominance. USSR . However, in practice, the plans were highly aggregated and provisional, subject to ad hoc intervention by superiors. In 1989, there served two million soldiers divided between 150 motorized and 52 armored divisions. 1926–1936  Kirghiz, 1931–1991  Abkhaz On 25 December 1991, Gorbachev resigned and the remaining twelve constituent republics emerged from the dissolution of the Soviet Union as independent post-Soviet states. The economy was formally directed by central planning, carried out by Gosplan and organized in five-year plans. Soviets actively destroyed anarchist organizations and anarchist communities, labeling anarchists as "enemies of the people". Soviet forces eventually captured Berlin and won World War II in Europe on 9 May 1945. [138], While nominally a union of equals, in practice the Soviet Union was dominated by Russians. In USSR, what does the letter “R” stand for? [141] The primary motivation for industrialization was preparation for war, mostly due to distrust of the outside capitalist world. // Мир леворуких. Much of the criticism it receives is centered around massacres in the Soviet Union, the centralized hierarchy present in the USSR and mass political repression as well as violence towards government critics and political dissidents such as other leftists. In the Russian Empire, the State Council which functioned from 1810 to 1917 was referred to as a Council of Ministers after the revolt of 1905.[14]. [19] Two other successor states, Kazakhstan and Ukraine, rank among the top 10 countries by land area, and the largest country entirely in Europe, respectively. Although in theory prices were legally set from above, in practice they were often negotiated, and informal horizontal links (e.g. The results of Donike's unofficial tests later convinced the IOC to add his new technique to their testing protocols. [148] A massive unplanned second economy grew up at low levels alongside the planned one, providing some of the goods and services that the planners could not. The formal proclamation was made from the stage of the Bolshoi Theatre. The Congress of People's Deputies was established, the majority of whose members were directly elected in competitive elections held in March 1989. [209], Ethnographic map of the Soviet Union, 1941, Number and share of Ukrainians in the population of the regions of the RSFSR (1926 census), Number and share of Ukrainians in the population of the regions of the RSFSR (1979 census), In 1917, before the revolution, health conditions were significantly behind those of developed countries. The same year, a Soviet Constitution was approved, legitimizing the December 1922 union. In Kyrgyzstan, 16% of respondents said the collapse of the USSR did good, while 61% said it did harm. [78] Between 1988/1989 and 1993/1995, the Gini ratio increased by an average of 9 points for all former socialist countries. It was the largest country in the world by surface area,[9] spanning over 10,000 kilometers (6,200 mi) east to west across 11 time zones and over 7,200 kilometers (4,500 mi) north to south. 4, 1987, pp. While doubts remained over the authority of the accords to do this, on 21 December 1991, the representatives of all Soviet republics except Georgia signed the Alma-Ata Protocol, which confirmed the accords. Of the two other co-founding states of the USSR at the time of the dissolution, Ukraine was the only one that had passed laws, similar to Russia, that it is a state-successor of both the Ukrainian SSR and the USSR. However, the technical condition of the station deteriorated rapidly, especially after the fire, so in 2001 it was decided to bring it into the atmosphere where it burned down. 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